Further information: Fibroblast growth factor. Main article: Angiogenesis inhibitor.
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Cell Physiology. Retrieved 17 December Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. Journal of Cellular Physiology. Penn 11 March Retinal and Choroidal Angiogenesis. Retrieved 26 June Developmental Dynamics. Journal of Applied Physiology.
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The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. Genome Biology. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine. Current Neurovascular Research. Archived from the original on April 19, Heart and Circulatory Physiology.
Cell and Tissue Research. Bibcode : PNAS.. Bibcode : Natur. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Bibcode : Sci Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. A new therapeutic approach in coronary heart disease]". Herz in German.
Journal of Theoretical Biology. Journal of Mathematical Biology. Tumor angiogenesis regulators first ed. Retrieved 2 October Clinical Cancer Research. Trends in Molecular Medicine. Vascular Health and Risk Management. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.
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Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. Trends in Biotechnology. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Kempson, Cheng Liang Wang et al, "Complete microscale profiling of tumor microangiogenesis" Biotechnology Advances , doi : Wound healing.
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Angiogenesis Intussusception Vasculogenesis. Development of the circulatory system. Truncus arteriosus Bulbus cordis Primitive ventricle Primitive atrium Sinus venosus. Atrioventricular Primary interventricular foramen Endocardial cushions Septum intermedium Atrioventricular canal Atrial Septum primum Foramen secundum Primary interatrial foramen Septum secundum Foramen ovale. Aorticopulmonary septum Protein signalling in heart development.
Angiogenesis following vasculogenesis. Other materials, e.
Hybrid delivery systems can be an attractive approach to improve the properties of nVGDSs. For example, lipid and polymer integrated materials, e. PEI modified with linoleic acid, were used to investigate the expression levels of basic fibroblast growth factor bFGF and bone morphogenetic protein-2 BMP-2 in a rat subcutaneous implant model using different scaffold materials such as gelatine and collagen [ ]. The results showed that the coprecipitation of DNA-lipoplexes resulted in the highest transfection efficiency in all groups.
It was believed that coprecipitation of the DNA-lipoplexes into biomimetically nucleated apatite resulted in better spatial distribution, higher stability, and higher transfection efficiency of DNA delivery [ ].
Skin is the largest organ in the human body. It functions as a natural barrier against many environmental hazards and maintains water balance between the outside and inside of the body. For this reason, skin regeneration is crucial for extensive burn or other skin injuries [ ]. Fully constructed tissue-engineered skin is a major challenge because the structure of skin is stratified and the composition of skin is complex [ ].
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Genetically modified skin substitutes have been constructed to enhance skin disease treatment as reported in the literature [ ]. Nucleic acids chosen for modification can be divided according to their encoding proteins or functions, e. Derivatives of natural cationic polymers are frequently in use in TE research, e. Guo et al.
Concerning the improvement of skin scar formation, gene-activated scaffolds have also been applied to advance skin-regeneration with inhibited scarring via an siRNA-loaded collagen—chitosan—silicone membrane bilayer dermal equivalent BDE [ ]. The synthetic cationic polymer PEI, used in bone engineering, is also widely used in researches on skin regeneration.
The in vitro study demonstrated that the released pDNA from fibrous mats promoted cell attachment and viability, cell transfection and protein expression, and extracellular secretion of collagen IV and laminin. Furthermore, the pDNA polyplex-encapsulated fibres alleviated the inflammation reaction, enhanced the generation of microvessels, and improved the formation of mature vessels compared with pDNA polyplex-infiltrated fibrous mats. This clearly indicated the advantage of DNA encapsulated scaffolds [ ].
In a wound healing study, Monaghan et al. These scaffolds were then tested in vivo in full thickness rat wounds. Thiersch et al. HIF-1alpha is the primarily oxygen-dependent regulated subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1, which controls angiogenesis among other physiological pathways. The HIF-1alpha gene delivery increased the number of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, precursors for mature blood vessels, during wound healing [ ]. The study by Nelson et al.